Avec près de deux siècles et demi d’existence, le Haras Portugais d’Alter-do-Chão (« Coudelaria de Alter ») dans le Haut-Alentejo, est l’un des plus importants pour notre histoire européenne. Cheval d’origine espagnole très marquée et sous-race du Lusitanien, l’Alter Real était au XVIIIèmesiècle l’un des plus réputés en Haute-Ecole. Mais l’histoire faillit anéantir ce joyau princier, sauvé de justesse d’une extermination totale … Véritable peinture vivante illustrant les plus grands traités d’équitation, l’Alter possède un modèle racé, élégant et bien stabilisé, fait pour une équitation de manège très sophistiquée.

Du sang des meilleures castes andalouses dans les veines

Pour bien comprendre ce que représente l’Alter Real, il faut remonter au début du XVIIIème siècle avec ses grandes maisons royales et leurs Académies Equestres rayonnantes. Au Portugal, le roi João V (Jean V) et ses fils, D. José (Joseph) et D. João, montent avec grâce et finesse de fières montures dressées au « Picaria Real », le Manège Royal situé au Palais de Belém à Lisbonne. La Reine n’est autre que l’Archiduchesse Marie-Anne d’Autriche, dont la cour, à Vienne, est le siège de la fameuse Ecole Espagnole des Lipizzans. Afin d’obtenir des chevaux capables de rivaliser avec les meilleurs sujets d’Europe, le Roi João V décide, en 1748, de créer un Haras Royal à Portel : il achète en Andalousie 300 juments et quelques étalons. En 1751, son fils, D. José I, choisit d’implanter définitivement la « Real Coudelaria » (Haras Royal) à Alter-do-Chão et importe d’Andalousie un noyau d’une quarantaine de juments. En 1757, le Haras de Portel est transferré à Alter. A l’origine, presque tous les reproducteurs furent donc importés d’Andalousie et choisis parmi les meilleurs, exceptées quelques juments provenant de l’Alentejo. Au XVIIIIème siècle, il semble que la race soit demeurée très pure et l’Alter, cheval de Haute-Ecole par excellence, atteint son apogée. Le Haras est administré par les meilleurs écuyers Portugais, tel le célèbre Marquis de Marialva qui inspire Manõel Carlos de Andrade dans son traité d’équitation paru en 1790, sous le titre « Luz da Liberal e Nobre Arte da Cavalaria ». Véritable « bible équestre » portugaise, ce traité n’a rien à envier à ceux de Pluvinel ou de La Guérinière et nous livre les premières représentations fidèles des chevaux Alter.

L’École portugaise d’art équestre: « banc d’essai » de l’Alter

Depuis 1960, tous les futurs reproducteurs subissent un travail de dressage systématique et des tests sportifs. Les mâles élus partent à la « Escola Portuguesa de Arte Equestre » où ils demeurent toute l’année, hormis la période de monte. Créée en 1979, cette Ecole présente son carrousel au « Palácio Real » (Palais Royal) de Queluz. Elle a démontré la grande valeur de la race Alter, ainsi promue à un nouvel essor … L’emblème de l’Ecole Portugaise d’Art Equestre est illustré par une gravure représentant le Marquis de Marialva et provenant du traité d’équitation de Manõel Carlos de Andrade « Luz da Liberal e Nobre Arte da Cavalaria », paru en 1790.

Robe, standard et aptitudes de l’Alter Real

L’Alter possède généralement une robe du plus beau bai brillant… Pourtant, au XVIIIème, elles étaient des plus variées: grises, alezanes, noires et même isabelles ou souris. A la reconstitution de la race, en 1942, les reproducteurs étaient tous bais, à l’exception de 2 juments alezanes et d’une grise. Sur les 354 étalons Alter inscrits au Stud-Book Portugais du Lusitanien en date du 31/12/1989, tous sont bais à l’exception de 10 alezans, 7 gris et 1 noir. Les occasionnels étalons de fer étranger n’ont tout d’abord produit que des bais. Mais la très récente introduction de deux étalons gris explique la réapparition soudaine de cette robe, gène dominant oblige ! De taille moyenne (1m55-1m60), l’Alter se distingue par ses lignes pures d’une rare beauté, la majesté de son port, son énergie et ses allures harmonieuses… Il possède une bonne conformation générale, une belle encolure, un tronc fort, un poitrail large, une croupe musclée et des membres fins. Le bon cheval est énergique, généreux, intelligent, docile et fait preuve d’une grande finesse. Grâce à ses qualités physiques et morales, l’Alter excelle en Haute-Ecole ou en Dressage. Comme tous les Lusitaniens, la construction de son modèle l’équilibre naturellement sur l’arrière-main. Il fait donc preuve d’une mobilité exquise et d’une prédisposition naturelle pour le rassembler et pour tous les airs relevés : « passage », « piaffer »…

97 avis sur « Alter Real »

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